The Republic of Indonesia is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising islands. With an estimated total population of over 252 million people, Indonesia is the world’s fourth-most-populous country. It encompasses 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status. The nation’s capital city is Jakarta. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world’s 17th largest by nominal GDP.
Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group is the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia’s national motto, “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” (“Unity in Diversity” literally, “many, yet one”), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world’s second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.
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